Global Education


Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship

1. Introduction Education for sustainable development and global citizenship must be considered within both a curriculum and a management related framework in schools. The education processes should be seen to bring together the National Curriculum and Personal and Social Education within the context of sustainable development at both the local and global scales.

This policy statement provides a background to the curriculum priorities impinging on education for sustainable development (ESD) and global citizenship (GC). It also highlights a specific whole school approach to sustainability and attempts to articulate the key agencies supporting schools in these respects.

2. Background The UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio in 1992 claimed that achieving sustainable management of the planet is the greatest challenge facing humanity today. Ten years later and the challenge is ever more urgent. The essential importance of education to meeting this challenge is now emphasised in a UN proposal for a decade of education for sustainable development, to begin in 2005.

The Welsh Assembly Government is committed to promoting sustainable development - that is, development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It will take social, economic and environmental issues into account in everything that it does. It will integrate the principles of sustainable development into its work and seek to influence others to do the same.

Education is an essential component of any sustainable development strategy. There is a growing realisation, at all levels, that behavioural changes will be required if sustainable management of the planet is to become a reality, and that education has a central part to play in bringing about this change.

"ESD is about enabling pupils to develop the knowledge, values and skills to participate in decisions about the way we do things individually and collectively, both locally and globally, that will improve the quality of life now without damaging the planet for the future." (Sustainable Development Education Panel, 1998).
Gordon Brown: Wiring a web for global good

Key Concepts

Key Concepts Of Sustainable Development And Global Citizenship
The key concepts of sustainable development and global citizenship have evolved in parallel over the past few years. Global citizenship is a necessity for sustainable development and local action for sustainable development is a requirement of global citizenship. The following nine key concepts should guide the development of values, attitudes, skills, knowledge and understanding required for sustainable living. They should be inherent in the school's aims of ESD.
( 1 ) Interdependence - understanding how people, the environment and the economy are inextricably linked at all levels from local to global
( 2 ) Citizenship and stewardship - recognising the importance of taking individual and collective responsibility and action to make the world a better place
( 3 ) Needs and rights - understanding our own needs and about human rights and the implications for the needs of future generations of actions taken today
( 4 ) Diversity - understanding, respecting and valuing both human diversity - social, cultural and economic and biological diversity
( 5 ) Quality of life - acknowledging that global equity and justice are necessary in a sustainable society and quality of life is a broader concept than standard of living
( 6 ) Sustainable change - Understanding that some resources are finite and that this has implications for lasting changes to peoples' lifestyles and for commerce and industry
( 7 ) Uncertainty and precaution - acknowledging that there are a range of possible approaches to sustainability and global citizenship and that situations are constantly changing, indicating a need for critical thinking, flexibility and life long learning
( 8 ) Values and perceptions - developing a critical evaluation of images of, and information about, the less and more economically developed parts of the world and an appreciation of the effects these have on people's attitudes and values
( 9 ) Conflict resolution - understanding how conflicts are a barrier to development and a risk to us all and why there is a need for their resolution and the promotion of harmony (Curriculum and Qualification Guidance on Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship, ACCAC/DFID/Estyn/WAG, 2002).
Estyn now has a remit to inspect and evaluate education for sustainable development and global citizenship, both within the curriculum and in terms of the school's actions to reduce its own impacts.

4. The Role of ESD and GC in the School Curriculum
ESD empowers pupils to be active, informed and responsible citizens aware of their rights and committed to the practices of participative democracy and the challenges of being a citizen of Wales and the world. Furthermore it will help schools to promote progress towards concern and action for equal opportunities, social justice and sustainable development at local and global scales.

ESD has an important role in developing the values, attitudes and skills required to translate knowledge and understanding into practice by using innovative approaches which combine education with action and use active participatory learning.


5. Strategies for Delivery of ESD and GC
( i ) ESD and GC should be developed through all areas of the curriculum. National Curriculum geography specifically addresses sustainability in the study of environmental change. Science provides the knowledge and understanding of physical processes and living things, which is required to understand the pertinent issues. Elements of history provide the opportunity to investigate sustainable societies in the past and how "civilisation" as we know it can have a detrimental effect on the sustainable development of our planet.

The values and attitudes related to RE. are important to the underlying philosophy of ESD. The other subjects of the National Curriculum can be used for investigating, analysing or communicating relevant information. Personal and Social Education is crucial in the development of the Values, Attitudes and Skills which will be necessary if the behavioural changes required to achieve sustainable development are to occur.

( ii ) Past experiences have shown that too much emphasis on a global, knowledge based approach does not promote pro-environmental behaviour. The emphasis should not be on global problems which seem far removed from the individual, but rather on exploring smaller scale solutions and the way in which the individual can influence future development. Pupils should not only understand how their actions impact on the world as a whole but also be ready to influence activity at the local level within the community, thinking globally and acting locally.

( iii ) ESD must move beyond raising knowledge and awareness and develop pupils' skills to become active citizens of their school, and of the local and global community. This will involve using active learning methods that are empowering. Allowing pupils to participate gives them the opportunity to explore their own values and attitudes and different perspectives on important issues. It gives opportunities for independent learning and the development of thinking skills and is an appropriate vehicle for the recognition and management of different learning styles.

( iv ) ESD should incorporate educating about and for the environment, and educating in and through it. Education about the environment should be concerned with the inevitable cause and effect and interdependence of systems and the consequences of change and development. Such environmental awareness will embrace the principles of stewardship and sustainability, which link with educating for the environment. Pupils, as current consumers of the environment and future decision makers, need to be encouraged to have an informed concern and show responsible use of the environment. They can be motivated to achieve this by learning in and through the environment involving first-hand experiences where the environment itself is the stimulus for learning and an arena for action.

( v ) The skills, knowledge and attitudes implicit in ESD are generic to education as a whole and might be seen as important to any good educational practice. They should be addressed in the context of a whole school approach, for pupils and staff, in the day to day management of the school. In the long term, ESD should impact on the whole school ethos that aims to improve aspects such as: litter, waste minimisation, sustainable travel to school, energy and water consumption, and healthy lifestyles.

Values and Attitude :-
* a sense of identity and self esteem
* a commitment to the well being of all living things
* value and respect for diversity
* a commitment to social justice and equity
* empathy and awareness of points of view of others
* an understanding that quality of life is not just dependent on standard of living
* an understanding of the place of individual and collective rights and responsibilities
* a desire to participate
* a belief that, working with others, people can make a difference
* a belief in a positive future

Skills :-  Co-operation and conflict resolution
* critical thinking
* negotiation
* problem solving
* reasoned debate; the ability to argue effectively
* informed decision making
* creativity; an ability to consider alternatives
* the ability to challenge injustice and inequalities
{2jtab: Understanding} Knowledge and Understanding :-
* how natural processes work. * globalisation and interdependence: how pupil's own lives and actions connect with the lives and actions of others - locally, nationally and globally;
* what is involved in different methods of providing for human needs and wants (energy, raw materials, human input, environmental input) * how the processes of decision making work and how to take part in them

( vi ) Using international linking enables pupils to gain a clear understanding of what being a global citizen means. Linking will involve teacher visits, pupil communication using ICT or more traditional means, discussion of issues relevant to ESD and GC, exchange of views and opinions and exchange of resources and pupils' work.

Pupils gain an insight into the way people live and the impact their actions can have on people and the environment in other parts of the world. All nine concepts of ESD and GC can be developed in some way in an international project.

The professional development of staff development is a key element of such work. Opportunities to understand the way other cultures function and for staff to plan projects together are very important. Both teachers and pupils become tolerant, curious and motivated and have an understanding of what is going on in the world and what it means to be a global citizen.

6. A Whole School Approach : ' Sustainable Schools ' Pupils receive confusing and contradictory messages if schools do not 'practice what they preach' and do so throughout the work of the school. It is increasingly recognised that the ethos of the school is as influential as the taught curriculum in nurturing attitudes of responsibility towards the environment and sustainable living. It is therefore very important that any school, which promotes sustainability in the curriculum, is seen to be trying to adopt a sustainable model itself.

Schools are therefore being encouraged and given an incentive, through the Sustainable Schools Award Scheme, to work towards becoming 'Sustainable Schools'.

Staff should assess how management practice and delivery of the curriculum is impacting on ESD in the school. Staff training should involve an understanding of their own global impact on the world, together with how they can generate this understanding in the pupils.

7. Sustainable Schools Award - The Sustainable Schools award scheme framework requires the adaptation of lessons or projects to cover eight sustainable development topics and the development of links between the curriculum and sustainable management of the school. The topics that provide starting points for ESD include :
* Healthy living
* Biodiversity
* Energy
* Water
* Waste minimisation and litter reduction
* Transport
* Community citizenship
* Global citizenship

Schools will need to : 1. Identify which aspects of ESD are already being covered within the school's curriculum and ethos and which need to be added 2. Complete work on the 8 ESD topics 3. Make a commitment to ESD in policy documents and the School Development Plan. Integrate all topics into curriculum schemes of work and inform the school and wider community of this commitment and progress towards its achievement.


The time frame can be fitted to individual school programmes so the award could take several years to achieve. For more information on the Sustainable Schools Award Scheme contact : Claudia Ludescher ( 01437 ) 776521 E-mail : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Education for sustainable development aims to produce motivated, proactive citizens of the future who will ensure the sustainable development of our planet. In order to achieve this it is recommended that schools :

1. Adopt and operate an environmental management system to help minimise their own environmental impact and therefore provide an appropriate learning context; and

2. Give students opportunities within the curriculum to develop the knowledge to develop positive and responsible attitudes towards people and the environment and equip them with the skills to enable them to behave in a sustainable manner.
8. Support for Schools At present there are several 'vehicles' for supporting the delivery of ESD and global citizenship education to children throughout the county. These include : 8.1 Schools in Communities Agenda 21 Network (SCAN)
Contact : Danielle Cowell, 02920 573 304
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Web :  www.museumwales.ac.uk/scan

SCAN offers a number of exciting cross-curricular projects that teach pupils about current environmental and sustainable development issues, linking their environment, economy and community. The Flower Diary project explores plants and climate change. Global footprints and Community Scan explore local impacts on the world and local solutions through community participation.

The Waterbabies project compares past and present environmental and social values and the Snail hunt looks at introduced species in our local environments. The projects provide a good introduction to environmental activities and involve pupils in decision making and action within their own schools and community. SCAN is currently used by Pembrokeshire Primary schools and secondary school materials are currently being developed.

8.2 Eco-Schools
Contact : Gerry Taylor, 01269 822 061
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Web :  www.eco-schools.org.uk
Eco Schools is a European-wide programme for schools, managed in Wales by the Keep Wales Tidy campaign. It raises pupils' awareness about the impact of their actions on the environment and encourages pupils, teachers and the school community to take an active role in the sustainable management of their school. Monitoring of energy, water and waste are some of the main topic areas. However, the project depends on a whole school approach and setting up a committee of people, including children, is the first action to be taken. A green flag is attainable but only when the school can prove that sustainability is in the ethos of the school and that they have an on-going action plan. Materials are free and available in Welsh or English.

8.3 Global Connections World Studies Resource and Training Centre Ltd.
Contact : Amanda Perrins 01646 687800   Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Global connections provide a resource library, school workshops and INSET training on global citizenship, cultural diversity, human rights, social justice and sustainability. The hands-on workshops can help bring locality studies, PSE and many other subjects alive. Teacher training aims to integrate global citizenship and sustainability into the whole curriculum and school planning. The message in Agenda 21 - "Think global, act local" is an intrinsic part of their work.

8.4 West Wales ECO Centre, Newport. Contact : Anna Carlisle 01239 820235
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Web :  www.ecocentre.org.uk
West Wales Eco Centre provides workshops, presentations, training and advice on matters relating to energy and the environment. This includes the implications of fossil fuel use, renewable energy, recycling, and sustainable resource use, particularly in transport and energy auditing, conservation and efficiency. The presentations contain elements of a number of subjects from across the curriculum including maths, science, geography and Design and Technology.

8.5 Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Contact : Steve Drinkwater 01437 764 636
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it   Web : www.pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk
The PCNP Education Service provides participatory field-study and activity sessions in the local environment, led by NP staff/Rangers. Talks and conservation projects are also available, tailored to the National Curriculum. Other services include local information, educational resources and a reference facility for teachers.

8.6 Tir a Mproject Contact : Pat Taylor PCNP 01437 764 363
Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Web :  www.pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk

A cross-curricular, fieldwork-based project, with particular focus on geography and science, run jointly by the Pembrokeshire County Council Education Service and the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. There are six projects (with schemes of work and lesson plans) in all tackling different aspects of ESD including Biodiversity in our towns, Biodiversity and changing habitats, People and woodlands, What's on our beaches?, On your Bike! and Energy and Water in our school. Twelve pilot schools are involved in 2001-3. Other Pembrokeshire schools can become involved through working on their own ESD project using Tir a M?aterials and resources and can work towards a Tir a M?ward.

8.7 Health Promoting Schools Contact : Lynne Perry 01437 771 232  Email : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
The Health Promoting Schools Project is part of the International Healthy Schools Programme, run locally by the Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire Health Promotion Service and Pembrokeshire County Council. It provides support for the active promotion of health and well-being of pupils and staff through the curriculum and life of the school, supporting important social and school management aspects of ESD.

8.8 Socrates Web :  www.socrates-uk.net/events.htm
There are various projects that involve the use of funds for European projects. In particular Comenius projects specifically target school and teacher projects.

8.9 The British Council Web : www.britishcouncil.org/education
The British Council has various ways of funding teachers for school linking visits.

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